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After the reaction, the catalyst is filtered off and any traces of residual nickel are removed in post-refining to a level of about 0.1 mg/kg or below. Hydrogenation is a series of consecutive reactions following pseudo first order reaction kinetics: esterification of BPO with methanol under acid catalyst reaction. The first transesterification is able to produce up to 88% (w/w) conversion of triglycerides (TG) to biodiesel. The remaining TG is carried out in the second step of the transesterification to complete the reaction toward achieving a high methyl ester content. Biodiesel is an alternative fuel for vehicles that use petroleum diesel. Biodiesel is produced by reacting vegetable oil with CH3OH. Methyl palmitate, C15H31COOCH3, a compound found in biodiesel, is made from soybean oil. One reaction of methyl palmitate with oxygen is represented by the balanced equation below. A general way to proceed in order to calculate the atom economy is to use the following steps: Construct a chemical equation for the given reaction. Balance the equation. Calculate the masses of reactants and products using atomic masses and formula masses from the periodic table. Petroleum fuels are blends of lots of different chemical species; in general, the molecules of a liquid petroleum fuel are pretty big and complex. Here is isooctane (C 8 H 18 ), typical of the molecules found in gasoline (I had to spread out the structure a bit to get all the hydrogen atoms to fit in the picture--all... Dynamic simulation of sorption enhanced reaction processes for biodiesel production Ankur Kapil, Shrikant A Bhat, Jhuma Sadhukhan * Centre for Process Integration, School of Chemical Engineering and Analytical Science The University of Manchester, Manchester, M60 1QD, UK *Author to whom correspondence should be addressed Biodiesel production from acid oil and ethanol using cation-exchange resin catalyst Muhammad Hamzah*, Mochammad Fadholi Biological Engineering, School of Life Science and Technology, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jl. Let. Jen. Purn. Dr.